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World. Countries. Communication. India

Family, Children and Marriage (2006 year)

Many religions, caste and every region of India influence family structure, character and traditions. For example houses from the palm-leaf, the stone houses or the houseboats. Usually, family life is so varied. In most of the society are the family and kinship. Three or four generations are still living under one roof, working, eating and all social and economic activities doing together. Additionally, the elders in this family are supposed to use their experience and wisdom to help for the younger members of family, because some members have their own role, which are determined by age and gender.  On the other hand young families, especially women, expect to live alone without parents and grandparents after marriage, just with their husbands.   
A lot of families still don’t believe that the family planning and children are as gifts from the God, but sons in the families are more preferred than daughters, because daughters are too expensive, they don’t earn money as sons and need to be given a lot of dowry when they get married.  Besides the baby boys names are giving, which describe as sun (Aditya), leader (Agraj), happiness (Amod) and other names, which mean power, trust and responsibility, and the baby girls names, which mean princess (Akuti), lady of the house (Abishta), mother (Ambalika) and others names, which mean contrarily than baby boys name.

India is a land of many cultures and religions. Every culture and religion has own way of celebrating marriage. All region, west, south, north and east, have own wedding customs and rituals. Usually, the marriage in India means not coming together of two individuals and exchanging rings, but it means the bonding between two souls, two families, their traditions, culture and communities. All the family’s friends and their members get together for the celebration and it is not couple days, but it is several eventful days. Additionally, the Indian marriage is a celebration not only for the families and friends, but also and for eyes, because the bride are festive and colourful dressed with clothes from finest silk, hands and feet are decorated with precious stones and elaborate paintings.  
Education (2006 year)
Education in India involved from primary to university education. Every year there graduate millions of students of information technologies or engineering, because India is one of the fast growing country and there is a need for more specialists who know about information technologies and engineering for car factories or somewhere else. Good education is seen as a step by step to a high career. In India there are many schools, colleges and universities, where many pupils and students are studying.

Education system is started from the nursery, where children start to paint, play some logical games, communicate with their friends and etc. Then the children from the age of 6 years old start to go in the primary school in the first class, where they start to read, write, calculate until 11 years old or fifth class. Then they go to the secondary school from the 6 class to 10 class or from 11 to 15 years old. Then the higher secondary school from 11 to 12 class or from 16 or 17 years old. After finishing a school pupil are ready to enter the universities or colleges. They are choosing the professions, which they want to study. Professions studying maturity is different; professionals need 4 years, medical – 5 years, arts and commerces need 3 year of studies. The maturity of post graduation studies is from 1 to 3 years.

On the other hand the Indian education structure is described as a Ten + Two + Three (10+2+3) pattern, which mean that the first ten years children (pupils) are provided general education. The two years are provided differentiation into academic and the end of school education and the last three years are involved in university or college education for all students, with their chosen subjects for studying.
AGE Alternative Education System Years Regular Education Stream
18+ Open Universities/ Distance Learning Institutions (Government and Private)   Academic and Professional Degree Colleges & Technical / Agricultural Universities (Government and Private)
17- 18 National Institute of Open Schooling Year 12 Senior Secondary Schools / Colleges, Vocational Training Institutions. (Government, Private and Religious Minority Schools)
16- 17 Year 11
15- 16 National Institute of Open Schooling Year 10 SECONDARY SCHOOLS (Government, Private and Religious Minority Schools)
14- 15 Year 9
13- 14 Non Formal Education Centres
Year 8
12- 13 Year 7
11- 12 Year 6
10-11 Year 5 Primary Schools (Government, Private and Religious Minority Schools)
9- 10 Year 4
8- 9 Year 3
7- 8 Year 2
6- 7 Year 1
3- 6 Pre School, Kindergarten
Table 2: Indian Education System

Literature and Arts
The best work of literature is Sanskrit holy books. These are epics about Ramayana and Mahabharata. India is producing books of foreign writers as well.

“Nights darkness is a bag that bursts with the gold of the dawn”
(Robindranath Tagore)

In 1913 the Indian poet Robindranath Tagore won The Nobel Prize for Literature Gintanjali. It is a collection of poems, where he put his thoughts with imagination, religious emotion and love of nature.  He was the first non-European, who won the Nobel Prize in any category until 1913.  One of the most known Indian books in the world is Kama Sutra, which is described the human sexual behaviour.
The Indian dances are the oldest art in thousands of years. The Hindu God Shiva is Lord of the dance and the dances are strong in the Hinduism. Usually the dances were shown in the temples, where it illustrated the Hindu mythologies and it performed ladies, who dedicated themselves to God. Additionally, it was the way to expressed emotions and state of mind.

Indian architecture achievements of their civilization are the temple complex of Khajuraho and Vijayanagara, where a happy and almost unique coincidence of religious emotion, abundant patronage, artistic genius, and aesthetic sensibility are represented. 
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