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Society. Social life. What is Alcohol? Damage of alcohol


What is alcohol?

    Alcohol is legal drug, which can be acquired by individuals of 18 years old. In this way, alcohol is the most prevalent drug. This rum is usually used to relax, improve communication, self-esteem, celebrate a joyful event, or forget disaster. Dependence on alcohol - it is a disease, rather than negative feature.
Alcohol is acting slow and insidious, and it lames all the body's systems, makes the human spirit and physical disability. The main active ingredient in alcoholic drinks – ethyl alcohol, the higher amounts damage the entire organism.
    As is known, the teens - the most difficult and dangerous young man development phase. A young man learning takes place under different conditions, which are characterized by one or other dangers, the negative effect of individual developments. One of the dangerous to young people and adolescents is alcohol. According to (Rachal et al. 1980), it is important to focus on the young because alcohol abuse in adolescence appears to be associated with alcohol abuse in later life (Grossman et al. 1993, introduction).
    Information about teenagers alcoholism comes in several and different ways. It comes from health and social statistical systems: mortality, hospitalization statistics, statistics on arrests and convictions for public drunkenness, and road accident statistics (Makela K. et al. 1981, 42). In order to establish themselves in society, teenagers do crazy things and don‘t think about results.
    Most children and teens tried alcohol in school year, unfortunately, a lot sooner than they could legally do it. Studies show that nearly 80% of high school pupils have tried alcohol  (The department of Lithuania‘s statistics, 2004). Also alcohol consumption - one of the reasons to encourage crime, and to have unsafe sexual behavior, it is believed that increasing age of the pupils, increased crime and the likelihood of infection sexually diseases transmissible (S.Dowshen, J.Schneider, 2005).
    According to statistics, alcohol should be attributed to such drugs as cocaine and heroin group (Brownlee 2006, introduction).
By the middle of the 19th century, alcohol intake was at a high level in most countires in Europe and North America (Makela K. Et al. 1981, 7). I agree with it because I think the world‘s history and culture is inconceivable without the alcohol.
    The invitation to sit and raise a glass or tumbler – the whole world understood like the mark of friendship. The kings raised and the poets sung of drinks. Browlee (2006, 9) argues that the medics also don‘t deprecate it: the alcohol may be beneficial. But together the alcohol - a strong poison, the effective chemical preparation, which is used for antifreeze and the production of adhesives (Browlee N. 2006, 9-10). Each year, alcohol is becoming the reason of two million people death.
    Alcohol is a clear drink that is made from corn, barley, grain, rye, or a beverage containing ethyl. Alcohol comes in different varieties. Beer and ale (4-7% alcohol), wine and champagne (9-14%), and hard liquor (40-50%) are the most common kinds of alcohol. Also alcohol has different forms and can be used as a cleaner, an antiseptic, or a sedative. Actually, alcohol is a drug which has the immediate effect of altering the mood and senses whilst also affecting physical co-ordination. Drinking also can make people feel relaxed and in a lot of cultures, is enjoyed socially when in fact, alcohol is a depressant.

Damage of alcohol to body

    When a person drinks alcohol, about 20 percent is absorbed in the stomach, and 80 percent is absorbed in the small intestine. The concentration of alcohol, the type of drink, and whether the stomach is full or empty depends on how fast the alcohol is absorbed. Once the alcohol is absorbed into the tissue, it affects your mind and body.  Blood alcohol concentration can rise up to 20 minutes after having a drink (Alcohol‘s damage. 2009, internet source). When people drink alcohol, it's absorbed into their bloodstream. From there, it affects the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord), which controls virtually all body functions.
    Alcohol is a depressant, which means it slows the function of the central nervous system. Alcohol actually blocks some of the messages trying to get to the brain. This alters a person's perceptions, emotions, movement, vision, and hearing (Shatz E., 2009).
    Alcohol calls a lot of diseases. Alcoholism is a serious progressive disease, characterized by mental and physical dependence on alcohol, and mental and somatic complications. Mental dependence symptoms - reduction in nervous tension, upset, lost depression, improved mood after drinking alcohol. Physical dependence - continuous appetite for alcohol, increasing the tolerance to alcohol, abstinence syndrome, loss of immoderate. According to Stariolyte (2001, 626), direct causes of alcoholism is alcohol consumption, but the disease develops only in about 5% of men and 1% of women. There are some risk factors lead to alcoholism: psychopathic personality, neurosis, illed mental illness, brain inflammation and their covers, severe trauma, poisoning with loss of consciousness (Stariolyte E. 2001, 629). Stariolytė (2001) says that alcohol is very soluble in water, therefore, easily penetrates the blood vessel walls and cell membranes and quickly falls into all the organs, especially the brain. Up to 90% of passed alcohol eliminate the liver (Stariolyte E. 2001, 629-630). According to Brownlee (2006, 21), in the organism accumulate a lot of toxic products when alcohol is in the process of oxygenate. Alcohol violates all the body's cells and organs, but most often prevails in some of the infringement. The most common violations of alcohol is for the liver . The liver's function is to break down the alcohol, but prolonged excess can cause scarring of the liver called cirrhosis.
    Alcohol may also cause disease of the pancreas and inflammation of the stomach. In some patients it may predispose to stomach cancer.
    Excess alcohol can produce heart irregularities and weakening of the muscle of the heart wall (The medical team 2007, internet source). It can also upset the body's natural control of blood fats and blood sugar levels. Accordign to the medical team (2007), prolonged alcohol may also have an effect on the bones causing bone thinning called osteoporosis and reduce the production of blood cells.
    Alcohol violates the brain too. The brain may be affected causing confusion and memory loss by  alcohol. The peripheral nerves may be damaged causing changes in sensation and numbness (The medical team 2007, internet source).
The use of alcohol is especially vulnerable to heart. Alcohol inhibits respiratory enzyme function, disrupts lipid and calcium metabolism (Stariolyte E. 2001, 632).  During the alcohol consumption is suppressing phagocytosis and is weakening the immunity (Stariolyte E. 2001, 630). Alcoholics are often due to ill lobe pneumonia, tuberculosis and may develop anemia.
    In this chapter I gave a lot of examples of alcohol damage to body. These examples show us that the alcohol is huge poison wich can destroy all human. Also alcohol can destroy social life: alcoholics can lose their job, family, social status and so on.

The damage of alcohol to life

    Alcohol is addictive. It is important to remember that alcohol addiction can have a devastating effect on social relationships and work.
Often this comes before the physical effects and will have a huge impact on the people who live and work with the person affected (The medical team 2007, internet source).
    Alcohol may adversely affect many areas of drinker life: harm to health, family, relationships with friends, work, education, reduces access to employment, the worsening financial situation.  Alcohol - psychoactive substance, causing injury and addiction, and therefore increases the accidents,violence or the others, suicide, risk in family of violence (Klusas P. 2002, 12). Damage caused by alcohol consumption has a negative economic impact on both individuals and the family and society.
    I think that alcohol harm to family and friends the most. Relatives and friends of alcoholics are forced to seek justification and cover them. Faithful, even short-term promises to straighten, because all the surrounding slopes of alcoholics are so reluctant to believe in them, and result, realtives contribute to the disease (Woitiz JG 1999, 15).
Young people are unable to control how much or how often they use alcohol. According to Jaynes and Rugg (1988, 21), they find themselves involved in burglaries, disorderly conduct, truancy, and stealing from family members. Parents often feel ashamed, because they believe they should be able to handle a problem which has now become completely out of control (Jaynes and Rugg 1988, 22). They start to blame each other. Alcohol precisely become destroyer of family.
    Also, man doesn‘t know another the efficient and so favorite catalyst of communion such as alcohol nowadays.
In conclusion this chapter I want to say that alcohol is very danger in all ranges. Alcoholism is important problem in today's society, having a very adverse physical, mental and the social consequences.

Why young people start to drink?

    There are about 50 theories, trying to explain the use of different psychoactive substances, the development of dependency.
    Psychoanalytic theory. It mainly concerns the development of alcoholism. These theories of psychological alcoholism interpretation based on the S. Freud's assertion that alcohol is stimulating oral mucosa caused by feelings similar to the satisfaction felt by the child in oral psychosexual stage (sucking mother‘s breast) (Stanyte D. 2008, internet source).
    According to psychoanalysts approach, attraction to alcohol, as well as all the other pathological likes - is returning to an earlier stage of development, namely the children's sexual experience. According to this theory, satisfaction caused by the consumption of alcohol, called "pfarmacological oral orgasm" (Stanyte D. 2008, internet source).  Appetite for alcohol according to this theory, as a measure to withdraw from reality, to protect their "I" from the outside world. Disturbed realationship with parents, in particular the push from the mother's side in childhood have huge meaning to this attraction development. All this is merging into the security, confidence, self-esteem, and sometimes the strength of desire.
   In psychoanalysis theory can distinguish several conceptions. Alcoholism - is running away from worrying homosexual pulses, to prohibit the thoughts, feelings of guilt (Stanyte D. 2008, internet source). Adolescent poisoned him/herself by alcohol, symbolically kill the cold and repellent mother, with whom he strongly identified in unconscious. The man keeps fear from open confrontation with the mother, so opponent dependence on the mother's the man dogged all his life (Stanytė D. 2008, internet source).
    Behaviourism theory. Bihevioristai refused intra-psychical analysis of the mechanisms of personality development. Basis of their deliberations - the facts, which can monitor, measure, evaluate (Nasvytiene 2005, 17). Behaviuorism view, we examined the cognitive factors affecting the abuse psychoactive substances, some of the acquisition of social theory emphasizes the importance of exclusive expectations (Zaikauskaite G.2005, internet source). Expectations on the use of alcohol is formed to monitor the effect of parents, peers or other individuals' consumption patterns, cultural rituals, obtaining information through the media and on the basis of personal experience (Nasvytiene 2005, 17-18).
Alcoholism, abuse of other drugs, behaviuorism opinion is due iterative reinforcement, which is received using alcohol. Coming of alcoholism, according to behaviuorism opinion, stress and anxiety have the most important meaning, which is a situation where there is pathological acquisition, an integral part (Nasvytiene 2005, 17-18).
    Transactional theory. According to Berne,  peoples’ self defeating patterns of behavior can expalin in terms of psychological ‘Games‘ (White T.,       Transactional analysis and drug use; internet source).
    Alcoholic behavior - this is a kind of game, for the operator to manipulate the surrounding feelings and actions. The goal of the game of alcoholic is the hangover (White T., Transactional analysis and drug use; internet source). The drinking is just an casual pleasure. For the alcoholic it is not the physical pain of the hangover but the psychological torment (White T., Transactional analysis and drug use; internet source). When he or she wakes up in the morning and is severely scolded by self or some other obliging person around the place, often the spouse. This is the goal of the game. Where all his or her beliefs about self, others and the world are once again played out in living color (White T., Transactional analysis and drug use; internet source).
    As you know, adolescence is a sudden change in life cycles. Adolescent actively seeks to establish itself among the peers, to take a proper, in his view, the situation of the family and school. I think that exactly in this period they begin to use alcohol, drug and wrong eat. Some of the adolescents remain dependent on these harmful habits, while others learn a healthy lifestyle, moderate alcohol use. According to Bulotaite (2004), most teens use alcohol  just from curiosity to appear to the adult (Bulotaitė L. 2004, introduction). Greatly influenced by peers, and already accustomed to alcohol, the moral pressure. As the S.Dowshon and J.A.Schneider (2005), children more likely to use alcohol who have problems of self-control or low self-esteem (Dowshen S., Schneider J.A. 2005, internet source). Those children may not believe that they may have to cope with their problems and fears themselves, without something that allows them to feel better.
    Many factors have impact to adolescent how usual he/she will drink alcohol and whether he built to use it often. Some of the - lead to the gene, the other - to learn behavior stereotypes. Talking of inheritance of alcoholism, modern science points that predisposition is hereditary, and not alcoholism itself. From alcohol-dependent parents of children have 4 times greater risk of becoming alcoholics (Leliūgiene I. 2003, 58). 
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